War metaphors
Generalisation based on an individual case
Opposing the elite
A certain group is not part of “the people”
“Threat to our language”
Leader doing physical work
Made-up numbers
Shifting attention from actions to feelings
Reference to homeland
“Other [leaders] are alienated from the people”
“The people know that...”
Oversimplifying a complex issue
Shifting attention to irrelevant matters
Mention of basic values
Made-up sayings
Us against them
Emotional rhetoric in factual issues
“The people want...”
Difficult issue brushed aside with a joke
Nostalgic notions of nationality
“My children...”
The true people have a unified culture
Fearmongering
Colloquialisms or dialect
Blaming the “dissidents”